Knowledge Center

The Knowledge Center focuses on two aspects, understanding complex biological processes and the nutrients that support them, and links to further research by topic and / or condition.


Muscle Function: Spasticity, Weakness and Paralysis

Bone Health (fighting osteoporosis and other bone disorders)

Joints and Connective Tissue (tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin)

Mitochondria: A Comprehensive Discussion

Coming Soon: Migraines

Coming Soon: GI Mobility




Mitochondria and aging

Near-infrared light increases ATP, extends lifespan and improves mobility in aged Drosophila melanogaster

Alzheimer’s and Dementia

Alzheimer’s Disease: Diverse Aspects of Mitochondrial Malfunction

Anxiety and Panic

Increased anxiety-like behaviors and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice with targeted mutation of the Bcl-2 gene: further support for the involvement of mitochondrial function in anxiety disorders

Arthritis (Osteoarthritis)

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Osteoarthritis Is Associated With Down-Regulation of Superoxide Dismutase 2


Deficits in bioenergetics and impaired immune response in granulocytes from children with autism

Blood Pressure

Role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in hypertension


Mitochondria and cancer: a growing role in apoptosis, cancer cell metabolism and dedifferentiation

Cardiovascular (Heart) Disease and Stroke

Mitochondria and heart disease


Introduction to Cholesterol Metabolism

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Mitochondria and cancer: a growing role in apoptosis, cancer cell metabolism and dedifferentiation

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome / Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

Mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle tissue of complex regional pain syndrome type I patients

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome type I in children with mitochondrial disease and maternal inheritance

Crohn’s / Ulcerative Colitis

Impaired Mitochondria linked to IBD and Autoimmune illness

Cystic Fibrosis

The Mitochondrial Complex I Activity Is Reduced in Cells with Impaired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Function

GSH monoethyl ester rescues mitochondrial defects in cystic fibrosis models

Dysfunction of mitochondria Ca2+ uptake in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells

Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in the Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Protein Mutant Mice

Mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase in cystic fibrosis (1979)

Depression and other Mood Disorders

Mitochondrial Functions in Mood Disorders

Diabetes / Insulin Resistance / Obesity

Mitochondria and diabetes. An intriguing pathogenetic role

Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Insulin Resistance

Deficiency of Subsarcolemmal Mitochondria in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

Mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Obesity and Diabetes

The role of impaired mitochondrial lipid oxidation in obesity

Dysautonomia / Autonomic Dysfunction

Too Hot, Too Cold, Too High, Too Low – Blame It On Dysautonomia


Dysphagia, malnutrition and gastrointestinal problems in patients with mitochondrial disease caused by the m3243A>G mutation


Mitochondrial disease and epilepsy


Increased DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural changes in fibromyalgic muscle fibres

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms: Think mitochondrial disease

Heart Disease

Mitochondria: From Basic Mitochondrial Biology to Cardiovascular Disease (List of Links to Multiple Journal Articles on this Topic)

Mitochondria as a Therapeutic Target in Heart Failure

Mitochondrial dynamics in heart disease

Mitochondria and heart disease

Mitochondria in heart failure

Mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease

Immune Health (Innate and Adaptive)

Mitochondria in the Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

Inflammation-Related Non-Communicable Diseases

Mitochondrial Dysfunction: A Basic Mechanism in Inflammation-Related Non-Communicable Diseases and Therapeutic Opportunities

Lipomatosis (Multiple Symmetrical Lipomatosis)

Multiple Symmetrical Lipomatosis–a mitochondrial disorder of brown fat


Assessment of mitochondrial dysfunction in lymphocytes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

Mitochondrial Disorders

Click HERE to be taken to the Mito Research Page (COMING SOON!)

Multiple Sclerosis

Mitochondria May Play a Role in MS Development and Progression

Animal Models Offer New Insights Into Energy Metabolism in Multiple Sclerosis

Mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis

Muscular Degeneration, Duchenne’s and Becker Type Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular degeneration in Duchenne’s dystrophy may be caused by a mitochondrial defect


Feet First? Old Mitochondria Might Be Responsible For Neuropathy In The Extremities


See above:  Diabetes / Insulin Resistance / Obesity


Mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological consequences

Retinal Degeneration

Mitochondrial decline precedes phenotype development in the complement factor H mouse model of retinal degeneration but can be corrected by near infrared light

Recharging mitochondrial batteries in old eyes. Near infra-red increases ATP

Rheumatoid Arthritis / Psoriatic Arthritis

The mutation of mitochondrial DNA is central to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis

Sjøgren’s Syndrome

Sjøgren’s syndrome-associated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction: prospects for chemoprevention trials

« Six Pillars of Mito Health

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